Ambulance Manufacturers Division (AMD) National Truck Equipment Association (NTEA)
General Services Administration (GSA) Specifications
- KKK-A-1822F (Aug 2007)
- KKK-A-1822F Cumulative Change (Jan 2015)
- KKK-A-1822F Change Notice 8 (July 2015)
- KKK-A-1822F Change Notice 9 (July 2016)
- KKK-A-1822F Change Notice 10 (July 2017)
- KKK-A-1822F Change Notice 11 (July 2018)
- KKK-A-1822F Change Notice 12 (July 2019)
- KKK-A-1822F Change Notice 13 (July 2020)
National EMS Safety Council
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
National Institute of Standards and Technology
- Ambulance Patient Compartment Human Factors Design Guidebook
- Improving Communication between Ambulances and the Hearing-Impaired
- Research Study of Ambulance Operations and Best Practice Considerations for Emergency Medical Services Personnel
White Paper on Advanced First Responder Vehicle Design (published September 2016)
Fact Sheets & Reports (from www.emsfatigue.org)
- Acute Sleep Deprivation and Risk of Motor Vehicle Crash Involvement (AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety, Dec. 2016)
- 2019-2020 Most Wanted Transportation Safety Improvement: Reduce Fatigue-Related Accidents (National Transportation Safety Board)
- 2020 Most Wanted Transportation Safety Improvement: Eliminate Distractions (National Transportation Safety Board, 2019-2020)
- 2020 Most Wanted Transportation Safety Improvement: Implement a Comprehensive Strategy to Reduce Speeding-Related Crashes (National Transportation Safety Board, 2019-2020)
- 2020 Most Wanted Transportation Safety Improvement: Improve the Safety of Part 135 Aircraft Flight Operations (National Transportation Safety Board, 2019-2020)
- Fatigue in EMS Handout (02/05/16)
- National Sleep Foundation Stages of Sleep (2020)
- National Sleep Foundation How Much Sleep Do We Really Need? (2020)
- NHTSA Office of EMS Infographic (02/05/16)
- Interim training on emergency responders working long hours (NIOSH, 2014)
- NIOSH Guidance: Overtime and Extended Work Shifts: Findings on Illnesses, Injuries, and Health Behaviors (NIOSH, 2004)
- Guide to Healthy Sleep (NIH, Sept 2011)
- Drowsy Driving and Automobile Crashes: Report and Recommendations (NHTSA, Apr 1998)
- Sleep Hygiene Tips (American Sleep Association)
- Reviewing Evidence Using GRADE
Reference articles (Free Access)
- Epstein et al. American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Clinical Guideline for the Evaluation, Management and Log-term Care of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Adults. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine Vol. 5, No3, 2009 pp 263-276.
- Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2015) Executive Summary: Management of Insomnia Disorder.
- How Atypical Work Schedules Affect Performance (National Sleep Foundation)
- White Paper: Consequences of Drowsy Driving (National Sleep Foundation)
- Patterson PD, Buysse DJ, Weaver MD, Callaway CW, Yealy DM. Recovery between Work Shifts among Emergency Medical Services Clinicians. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2015 Jul-Sep;19(3):365-75. doi: 10.3109/10903127.2014.995847. Epub 2015 Feb 6. PubMed PMID: 25658148.
- Patterson PD, Buysse DJ, Weaver MD, Suffoletto BP, McManigle KL, Callaway CW, Yealy DM. Emergency healthcare worker sleep, fatigue, and alertness behavior survey (SFAB): development and content validation of a survey tool. Accid Anal Prev. 2014 Dec;73:399-411. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2014.09.028. Epub 2014 Oct 15. PubMed PMID: 25449415; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4254576.
- Patterson PD, Moore CG, Weaver MD, Buysse DJ, Suffoletto BP, Callaway CW, Yealy DM. Mobile phone text messaging intervention to improve alertness and reduce sleepiness and fatigue during shiftwork among emergency medicine clinicians: study protocol for the SleepTrackTXT pilot randomized controlled trial. Trials. 2014 Jun 21;15:244. doi: 10.1186/1745-6215-15-244. PubMed PMID: 24952387; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4080698.
- Patterson PD, Suffoletto BP, Kupas DF, Weaver MD, Hostler D. Sleep quality and fatigue among prehospital providers. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2010 Apr-Jun;14(2):187-93. doi: 10.3109/10903120903524971. PubMed PMID: 20199233; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2895322.
- Patterson PD, Weaver MD, Guyette FX, Martin‐Gill C. Should public safety shift workers be allowed to nap while on duty? Am J Ind Med. 2020;63: 843–850.
- Patterson PD, et al. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring among emergency medical services night shift workers. Occup Environ Med 2020;0:1–7
References – Free abstract (requires subscription or fee to view full article)
- Lerman et al. Fatigue Risk Management in the Workplace. J Occup Environ Med. 2012 Feb;54(2):231-58. doi: 10.1097/JOM.0b013e318247a3b0.
- Patterson PD, Klapec SE, Weaver MD, Guyette FX, Platt TE, Buysse DJ. Differences in Paramedic Fatigue before and after Changing from a 24-hour to an 8-hour Shift Schedule: A Case Report. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2016 Jan-Feb;20(1):132-6. doi: 10.3109/10903127.2015.1025158. Epub 2015 May 15. PubMed PMID: 25978152.
- Weaver MD, Patterson PD, Fabio A, Moore CG, Freiberg MS, Songer TJ. An observational study of shift length, crew familiarity, and occupational injury and illness in emergency medical services workers. Occup Environ Med. 2015 Nov;72(11):798-804. doi: 10.1136/oemed-2015-102966. Epub 2015 Sep 14. PubMed PMID: 26371071; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4686303.
- Guyette FX, Morley JL, Weaver MD, Patterson PD, Hostler D. The effect of shift length on fatigue and cognitive performance in air medical providers. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2013 Jan-Mar;17(1):23-8. doi: 10.3109/10903127.2012.710719. Epub 2012 Aug 27. PubMed PMID: 22925035.
- Patterson PD, Weaver MD, Hostler D, Guyette FX, Callaway CW, Yealy DM. The shift length, fatigue, and safety conundrum in EMS. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2012 Oct-Dec;16(4):572-6. doi: 10.3109/10903127.2012.704491. Epub 2012 Jul 23. PubMed PMID: 22823487.
- Patterson PD, Weaver MD, Frank RC, Warner CW, Martin-Gill C, Guyette FX, Fairbanks RJ, Hubble MW, Songer TJ, Callaway CW, Kelsey SF, Hostler D. Association between poor sleep, fatigue, and safety outcomes in emergency medical services providers. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2012 Jan-Mar;16(1):86-97. doi: 10.3109/10903127.2011.616261. Epub 2011 Oct 24. PubMed PMID: 22023164; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3228875.